This section gives access to all position papers written in the context of PICTURE. Besides deliverables, these position papers point specific issues of discussion or take specific stands within cultural tourism
Elisabeth Dumont, Jacques Teller, Claude Origet du Cluzeau
This article starts by introducing the theme of cultural tourism, its challenges and impacts, the existing tools to measure or manage them, as well as the difficulty to define that form of tourism. It will then give a series of criteria to avoid the tyranny of definition and promote sustainability.
Modern-day research and policies emphasize the importance of integrated urban management and policies for the effective delivery of sustainable cultural tourism in European cities. Among other factors, Good Urban Governance is recognised as a key enabler and promoter of the process. In the complex urban world, Governing is usually an interactive process between the urban actors and groups involved. The bringing together of various actors to achieve shared purposes and benefits in certain areas of development, is usually referred to as Governance. Understanding Urban Governance of Cultural Tourism requires a comprehensive knowledge of the key concepts, principles, and processes of tourism and sustainable urban development. Several of these should be considered key to building the framework of Urban Governance of Cultural Tourism and will be discussed in this position paper.
Elena Bellini, Barbara Del Corpo, William Malizia, Dino Pinelli
This Position Paper discusses the impacts of tourism on urban economies. We firstly discuss the impacts taking place through market interactions. Then, we discuss the impacts that do not involve market interactions. Thirdly, we identify the key issues that affect the size and sign of the impacts. Finally, we outline the implications for policy.
Everyone knows these two holiday-makers : the first one is a â€ścultural marathon-manâ€?, who spends his/her whole holidays visiting cultural sites and attending cultural events ; the second one is this â€śbeach addictâ€?, who spends his/her entire holidays on the beach, but who will send us a postcard representing the local abbey ! Well, both of them demonstrate that, strong or superficial, cultural attractivity has an impact on tourism activity. And the tourism professionals are grateful !
The European Capital of Culture(ECOC) process presents an interesting means of addressing many of the issues surrounding the planning, promoting, developing and linking of culture and tourism. The findings from research conducted as part of the PICTURE project, revealed that the benefits accruing from the ECOC process may extend well beyond the cultural year provided that the cities put in place appropriate structures, processes and multi disciplinary approaches. Furthermore the bidding process itself may be enough to trigger the strategic actions necessary to put effective cultural tourism policies in place, regardless of success in securing the actual designation.
MiloĹˇ DrdĂˇckĂ˝, TomĂˇĹˇ DrdĂˇckĂ˝, David Creighton
Tourism impact affects tangible and intangible heritage in various ways, and change markedly with the level of tourism development. Such impacts can be tracked quite easily by monitoring changes to individual buildings. However, surveys providing reliable data about impacts and risks generated by large visitor numbers are lacking and most conclusions are based on general tourism development statistics. A crucial problem is that long-term measurements recording structural deterioration or damage are not available at present and, although some impacts are well-known, they cannot be traced directly to tourism. Environmental monitoring hence remains the most reliable source of information that can be used to estimate risks and explain some damages and impacts.